Having a pond where goldfish swim is a dream for many people. But for it to become a reality, it is necessary to make a small effort, be well informed and be willing to dedicate some time for correct maintenance.
To begin with, there are some points to consider that will help you to put a pond in the right place and make your dream come true. The first thing to ask yourself is: Which ponds are suitable for fish farming?
In order for the fish to feel good in the pond, there are several points to consider:
- the location of the pond
- your size
- the presence of plants
- climatic conditions, especially during the winter
According to all the canons and rules, the pond should be located at the lowest place in your garden. Its depth should be at least 1 m, but width and length depend on personal preferences and available space.
Remember that a narrow pond will not accommodate large numbers of fish and will quickly become contaminated with unconsumed food scraps. To give you an idea, it is usual that for a fish up to 10 cm long, about 50 liters of water are needed. Based on this data, you can precisely calculate the maximum number of individuals in the pond. In addition, plants are also required for the pond. This is necessary so that the fish can receive a sufficient amount of oxygen. The fish will not only decorate your pond, if you choose them well, they can also help to create a balanced ecosystem that involves minimal maintenance work for you. Just find out which fish and plants are best combined.
Some types of fish for the pond
The Shubunkin fish, which in Japanese means "red brocade" or "calico", is one of the artificially cultivated decorative breeds of the "goldfish" aquarium (in Latin Carassius), which is distinguished by its transparent scales and multicolored color. Officially, the breeding form of the goldfish Shubunkin (one of the varieties of the breed) was bred by the Japanese around 1900. The fish arrived in Europe quite late, only after the First World War, although the fish was known earlier in America .
This breed became popular in England, and in the early 1920's a new species was generated, called the London Shubunkin.
The length of the fish reaches 16 cm. It differs from the common goldfish in the shape of its body and fins, with transparent scales, so it is also called "scaleless goldfish", and its color is very varied.
The rarest specimens are the fish that have dark red, brown, yellow and black spots on a bluish background.
The goldfish Fantail Calico Carassius is one of the oldest known varieties of pond fish, as there are paintings from the year 1500 where you can see these fish reflected.
They can have different colorations in their scales, but the most outstanding colors are white and red, going through yellow and orange shades. One of the most beautiful colorations is the calico variety that presents a background color with small color spots on its scales.
It is a very calm fish to live with other species of fish in the pond, to those who did not bother. They are very resistant to cold temperatures and can live in a pond outside without having to use heaters in the water. They measure between 4 and 6 cm.
Ryukin in Japanese means literally "Ryukyu gold". It is one of the artificially cultivated decorative breeds of the aquarium goldfish (Latin Carassius gibelio forms auratus). The Ryukin fish is a fish with an elegant short egg-shaped body, and swollen, large fins. It can reach a length of about 20 cm. The ratio of height to body length is 3/4 to 1. The head is large, with slightly bulging eyes. The curvature of the back in the form of "hump" is characteristic, starting from the head to the dorsal fin. The length of the fins largely determines the value of the fish. The dorsal fin is strictly vertical. The ryukin can present diverse colors: red, pink or white, multicolored spots and "chintz".
It is a slow fish. It does not tolerate low water temperatures. Maintenance in open water and in cold zone ponds is not recommended, since it could hardly stand a winter.
The comet fish (in spanish: pez cometa) is possibly one of the most common, the fish we all think of when we think of a pond fish. It is characterized by an elongated body and a single tail fin. Its coloration can vary between Red, Yellow, Silver with reddish shades.
The comet fish can reach up to 20 cm. although this will always depend on the characteristics of the pond and the companions it has within it. Its life expectancy varies between 5 and 10 years.
Comet fish are fast, and it is not good for them to live with slow fish in the same pond, since they will always steal their food. Besides, they are very active fish, so sometimes they jump. It is necessary that they live in a group, since they have a sociable character.
As for their habitat, they need a lot of oxygen in the water. They are cold water fish that do not need special care, so they are especially recommended for ponds. They are very resistant to the climatic variations of the water, and are one of the few species capable of surviving in situations of abandonment. Ideally they need cold, neutral or slightly alkaline water and about 16° of temperature. Kitefish are one of the species that contaminate the water of an aquarium the most, so it is essential that we keep it clean frequently.
The Amphiprion Akallopisos is a light orange to pinkish fish, which has a white line on its back that goes from its head to the beginning of its tail, as if it were a skunk. The dorsal and caudal fins are white.
Female Amphiprion Akallopisos can reach up to 11 cm in total length.
They feed on seaweed, benthic invertebrates, and zooplankton.
This fish lives in tropical climate areas, in reefs between 3 and 25 m deep. In these reefs they tend to associate in a symbiotic relationship with the anemones Heteractis magnifica and Stichodactyla mertensii, with which you manage to survive the strong currents of the areas where they live. They can be found in East Africa, Madagascar, Comoros, Seychelles, the Andaman Sea, Sumatra and Seribu Islands, although it is possible to breed them in captivity.
How many fish should be in the pond?
The most important rule when raising fish in a rural pond is to avoid overpopulation. A small pond, for example, cannot accommodate more than two dozen fish. The average number of fish is calculated as follows: per 1 cubic meter of water we will put 10 to 20 fish the size of a palm tree. Preferably 10.
Microclimate for fish
Before throwing fish into a pond, it is necessary to create suitable conditions for them. Even if your decorative pond is fully equipped and ready to incorporate fish, take your time. The water it contains must settle and warm up.
So that the fish do not experience a temperature shock, they should be introduced gradually. First, the container with the fish is immersed in the pond water and kept there for at least two hours, until the temperature of the water in the pond and the container equalize. Once this happens, the fish can be released.
The acidity of the water should be between 7-8 units. At lower values, the water is considered acidic. And if the pH is above 8, then the water is too alkaline. The pH level should be measured regularly, as its values can vary according to precipitation or exposure to direct ultraviolet rays. You can measure the acidity level of water using litmus papers or drip analyzers.
If the acidity level in the tank is below normal, it can be increased with the help of hydrated lime, sodium bicarbonate (3-8 g per 100 liters of water), as well as special preparations. In case the alkali level exceeds the normal values, it is necessary to add tablets or peat bags to the water, this will help to soften it.
If you immerse a lot of withered grass in the water, then, in just a couple of days, a clean water tank will become a living pond in which you can throw fish. The fish should be thrown into the pond when the water is heated to 13-15°C, but at the same time they should be fed more often.
How and what to feed the fish
When throwing fish into the garden pond, think ahead about how and what you will feed them. In fact, in an artificial pond, it is unlikely that they will be able to find their own food.
Since most fish are omnivorous, compound food for pets is perfect for them. Ideally, though, you should find out what food to give them depending on the species you have in your pond.
You should feed the fish 1-2 times at the same time each day in the same place. For convenience, you can equip a special table pallet, which is easy to lower into the water.
To collect as many fish as possible during feeding, they may be used to a specific call sign, which will notify that the food is already in place and ready for them. Some breeders use a bell or whistle to warn the fish about the next feeding. Others strike one stone against another at the edge of the pond.
Fish swimming in a pond are an incredible and unique sight. If you want your pond to be not only a design element but also part of your hobby, get started and start creating it right away.