Social Differentiation

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Social Differentiation

Social Differentiation - Definition, Characteristics, Forms, Types and Examples - Each region must have a different cultural diversity and have the characteristics of each of these regions. Especially now is the age of globalization and allows everyone to move places, but it also can enable SOCIAL DIFERENCE

In reality there are differences in the community that occur naturally by nature. These differences make a balance and dynamism in social life. With these differences, it will cause the division of tasks in society to meet the needs of life.

The differences in society are vertical and horizontal. On this occasion we will discuss and explain the differences that occur in a society that is horizontal in nature as well as social differentiation.

social differentiation

In social differentiation these differences have the same degree and should respect each other in these differences. But in reality the differences that occur in these communities often cause conflicts. These conflicts can occur because of social differentiation in terms of religion, ethnicity, race, gender, and so forth.

So that on this occasion I would like to study and analyze the problems associated with social differentiation in the community in the hope of finding a solution that can be applied and is useful well. Therefore in this paper we try to review a little about Social Differentiation.

Do you know what is meant by social differentiation ?? If you don't know it, you are absolutely right to visit Because on this occasion we will discuss about the understanding of social differentiation, the form of social differentiation, and the type of social differentiation and its characteristics in full. Therefore, let us consider the reviews below.

Definition of Social Differentiation

Social differentiation is horizontal grouping of people based on certain characteristics. The differences cannot be classified vertically / vertically as in the level of the economic layer, namely the high layer, middle layer and low layer. Horizontal groupings based on differences in race, ethnicity (ethnicity), ethnicity and religion are called social plurality, while grouping based on professional and gender differences is called social heterogeneity.

If we pay attention to the community around us, there are so many differences that we encounter. In this study we conducted in Ringinanyar Village, in this village we encountered differentiation, differentiation in the form of differences among others in religion, race, ethnicity, clan (clan), occupation, culture, and gender.

That difference is only horizontal. Such differences in sociology are known as Social Differentiation.

Differentiation is the classification of differences that are usually the same. The same understanding here shows the classification or classification of society horizontally, horizontally, or parallel. The assumption is that no group from that division is higher than the other groups.

Horizontal groupings based on differences in race, ethnicity (ethnicity), ethnicity and religion are called social plurality, while grouping based on professional and gender differences is called social heterogeneity.

For more details, see the scheme below:

Horizontal grouping

Characteristics of Social Differentiation

The characteristics of social differentiation in society can be grouped into three namely:

  • Physical Characteristics: this classification of society occurs because of a general difference in a person's physical appearance such as eye shape, color and shape of hair, skin color, nose shape and others.
  • Social Characteristics: Community classification based on social characteristics usually occurs due to differences in social status in the community itself. In this case the social status is measured by: position, profession, power, prestige, and its role in society.
  • Cultural Characteristics: This classification of people occurs because of differences in the way of life of people from one another. More about cultural characteristics can be seen from differences in beliefs / religions and norms adopted in the community such as customs, arts, clothing worn, the language used, and others.

Also read: Definition, Function and Forms of Competition and Complete Examples

Forms of Social Differentiation

The grouping of people forms eight social differentiation criteria.

  • Racial Differentiation

Race is a group of people who share the same physical characteristics of the cloud. Racial differentiation means grouping people according to their physical characteristics, not their culture.

Broadly speaking, humans are divided into races as follows:

  • According to AL Krober
    • Austroloid, including indigenous Australians (Aboriginal)
    • Mongoloid
      • Asiatic Mongoloid (North Asia, Central Asia and East Asia)
      • Malayan Mongoloid (Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, native of Taiwan)
      • American Mongoloid (Native American)
    • Caucasian
      • Nordic (Northern Europe, around the Baltic Sea)
      • Alpine (Central Europe and Eastern Europe)
  • Mediterranean (around Central, North Africa, Armenia, Arabic, Iran)
  • Indic (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka)
  • Negroid
    • African Negroid (African Continent)
    • Negrito (Central Africa, Malay Peninsula known as Semang, Philippines)
    • Melanesian (Irian, Melanesia)
  • Special races (cannot be classified into four main races)
    • Bushman (Kalahari desert, South Africa)
    • Veddoid (inland Sri Langka, South Sulawesi)
    • Polynesian (islands of Micronesia and Polynesia)
    • Ainu (on the islands of Hokkaido and Karafuto Japan)

Various Types of Race-Staying-in-the World

Types of Race Live in the World

  • According to Ralph Linton
  • Mongoloid, with the characteristics of yellow to brown skin, straight hair, slight body hair, slanted eyes (especially Asian Mongoloid). The Mongoloid race was divided into two, namely the Asian and Indian Mongoloid. Mongoloid Asia consists of Chinese sub-races (consisting of Japanese, Taiwanese, Vietnamese) and Malay sub-races. The Malay Sub Race consists of Malaysians, Indonesians, and Mongoloid Indians consisting of Indians in America.
  • Caucasoid, has the physical characteristics of a sharp nose, white skin, blond hair to blackish brown, and eyelids. This race consists of Nordic, Alpin, Mediterranean, Armenian and Indian Sub Race.
  • Negroid, with physical characteristics of curly hair, black skin, thick lips and straight eyelids. This race is divided into Negrito, Nilitz, Jungle Negro, Oceanic Negro and Hotentot-Boysesman Sub Race.

Also read: Definition, Characteristics, Form, and Type of Social Deviations along with Complete Examples.

How about Indonesia ?

What sub-races inhabit our country?

Indonesia is inhabited by a variety of Sub Races as follows:

  • Negrito, the Semang tribe in the Malay Peninsula and its surroundings.
  • Veddoid, namely the Sakai tribe in Riau, Kubu in South Sumatra, Toala and Tomuna in
  • Neo Melanosoid, the inhabitants of the Kei islands and
  • Malay, which consists of two:
    • Old Malay (Proto Malay), namely Batak, Toraja and Dayak people
    • Young Malay (Deutro Melayu), namely Acehnese, Minang, Bugis / Makasar, Javanese, Sundanese,

  • Ethnic Differentiation (Ethnic)

What is meant by ethnicity or ethnicity?

According to Hassan Shadily MA, ethnicity or ethnicity is a group of people who are still considered to have biological relations . Ethnic differentiation is a humanologization based on the same biological features , such as race. But ethnicity has another most basic characteristic, namely cultural similarity. Ethnic groups have the following similarities:

  • Physical characteristics - art
  • Regional languages ​​- customs

Ethnic groups in Indonesia include:

  • on the island of Sumatra: Aceh, Batak, Minangkabau, Bengkulu, Jambi,

Palembang, Malay, etc.;

  • on the island of Java: Sundanese, Javanese, Tengger ,;
  • on Kalimantan Island: Dayak, Banjar ,;
  • on Sulawesi Island: Bugis, Makasar, Toraja, Minahasa, Toli-toli,

Bolaang-Mangondow, Gorontalo, etc .;

  • in Kep. Nusa Tenggara: Bali, Bima, Lombok, Flores, Timor, Rote,;
  • in Kep. Maluku and: Ternate, Tidore, Dani, Asmat,
  • Irian

How about you ? Which ethnic group? Whatever your ethnicity is no problem. What is important is that we are all good Indonesian citizens. Our differences are only physical differences, still remember that differences are beautiful?

Also read: Understanding and the causes of the occurrence of social inequalities and how to overcome them completely

  • Clen Differentiation (Clans)

Clen (Clan) is often also called a broad relative or extended family . Clen is a genealogical unity, genealogical unity (religious) and traditional unity (tradition). Clen is a social system based on the same blood ties or offspring that generally occur in unilateral societies either through the father's lineage (patrilineal) or the mother's line (matrilineal).

  • Klen on the basis of paternal lineage (patrilineal) include in:
    • Batak people (as Marga)
    • Karo Batak Marga: Ginting, Sembiring, Singarimbun, Barus,

Tambun, Paranginangin;

  • Toba Batak Marga: Nababan, Simatupang, Siregar;
  • Marga Batak Mandailing: Harahap, Rangkuti, Nasution, Coal,
  • The Minahasa community (the clause is called Fam) includes: Mandagi, Lasut, Tombokan, Pangkarego, Paat,
  • Ambonese community (the clause is called Fam) include: Pattinargeti, Latuconsina, Lotul, Manuhutu,
  • The Flores community (called "Fam") includes:

Fernandes, Wangge, Da Costa, Leimena, Kleden, De-Rosari, Paeira.

  • Klen on the basis of maternal lineage (matrilineal), among others, are in the Minangkabau community, the clen is called a tribe which is a combination of kampuang-kampuang. Clen names in Minangkabau include: Koto, Piliang, Chaniago, Sikumbang, Malay, Solo, Dalimo, Kampai,

People in Flores, the Ngada tribe, also use the Matrilineal system.


Batak tribe is one of the tribes in Indonesia that uses a patrilineal system

  • Differentiation of Religion

According to Durkheim religion is an integrated system consisting of beliefs and practices related to sacred matters. Religion is an essential problem for human life because it involves a person's beliefs that are considered true. Belief in religion is morally binding on its adherents. That belief forms the moral community group (ummah). The adherents of a religion can be identified by the way they dress, how to behave, how to worship, and so on.

Also read: Contravention: Definition, Form, Type, and Impact and Examples in Complete


Differentiation of religion is a grouping of people based on their religion / beliefs.

  • The Components of Religion
    • Religious emotion , which is an irrational attitude that is able to thrill the soul, for example an attitude of fear of mixing
    • The belief system , manifested in the form of human thoughts / ideas such as belief in the attributes of God, supernatural beings, cosmology, the afterlife, magic ring, ancestral spirits, gods, and
    • Religious ceremonies , which take the form of worship to God, Gods and Grandma's Spirit
    • Places of worship , such as mosques, churches, temples, temples, temples,
    • People , namely members of one religion which is a social unit.

  • Religion and Society

In its development, religion influences society and so does society influence religion or dynamic interactions occur. In Indonesia, we know Islam, Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism and Hinduism. Besides that, other religions or beliefs have also developed, such as Khong Hu Chu, Beliefs, Kaharingan and other original beliefs.


This is where various people carry out their worship

  • Differentiation of Professions (occupations)

A profession or job is an activity carried out by humans as a source of income or livelihood.

Differentiation of professions is a grouping of people based on the type of work or profession. The profession is usually associated with a special skill. For example the teaching profession requires special skills, such as: articulate, like to guide, be patient, etc.

Based on the different professions we know the community groups work as teachers, doctors, traders, laborers, civil servants, soldiers, and so on.

Professional differences will usually also affect social behavior. For example, a teacher's behavior will be different from a doctor's when both carry out their work.

Also read: Social Environment: Definition, Factors, and Types along with Complete Examples

  • Sex Differentiation

Gender is a category in society that is based on sex or gender differences (biological differences). This biological difference can be seen from the structure of the reproductive organs, body shape, sound, and so on. On that basis, there are male or male community groups and women's or female groups.

  • Differentiation of Regional Origin

This differentiation is a grouping of people based on the origin of the area or place of residence, village or city. Divided into:

  • village community: groups of people who live in villages or come from villages;
  • urban communities: groups of people who live in urban areas or come from cities.

The differences between villagers and city people can be found in the following matters: - behavior

  • speech
  • how to dress
  • how to decorate a house,

  • Party Differentiation

In order to accommodate the aspirations of the people to participate in regulating the state / power, so many parties have emerged. Party differentiation is the difference in society in its activities to regulate state power, in the form of social units, seazas, seideologi and sealiran.

In the 1999 Election there were 48 parties, in the 2004 Election the number of parties may have increased. Well, you have completed all the material in learning activities 1. Hopefully you have a good understanding of the subject of social differentiation. Well .... let's explore that discussion by doing the following tasks / exercises.

Also read:

Example of Social Differentiation

From the discussion above we can convey examples of social differentiation in our society. The example can be seen below:

  • Classification of people because of physical differences which came to be known by various races such as the Mongoloid, Negroid, Caucasoid, etc.
  • The classification of society due to differences in social status can be seen in: Community life in the village of a village administrator will have a different social status from ordinary people, this happens because of different positions or powers.
  • The classification of society because of cultural characteristics can be seen in the diversity of tribes in Indonesia such as the Minangkabau, Javanese, Toraja Banjar, Dayak, etc.

Differences in Differentiation from Stratification

Before we study social stratification specifically in the coming module, by looking at the table below we can clearly distinguish between social differentiation and social stratification.


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